Two-Eyed Seeing

Students discuss what Indigenous land-based knowledge and Western science is with their teacher and generate an understanding of how to foster knowledge mutualism.

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Two-Eyed Seeing


Video- Two-Eyed Seeing: ; Multiple Ways of Knowing.pdf


Spotlight on Language:

Words for Science

AnishinaabemowinAki gikendaasowi


  • Teacher asks students how they would define Indigenous science (Indigenous land-based knowledge) and Western Science. With the help of the teacher, the class develops a working definition of each.
  • The QUILLS definitions of each can be found in Multiple Ways of Knowing.pdf. Class definitions will of course be much shorter. This level of detail is included to generate a rich level of understanding in teachers facilitating the discussion.
    • Teachers asks students to come up with a definition of two-eyed seeing. To help students the teacher may wish to show the video Two-Eyed Seeing available on YouTube: The video features Mi’kmaq Elders Albert and Murdena Marshall from Eskasoni First Nation and Cheryl Bartlett, professor emeritus from Cape Breton University, who popularized the phrase.


Two-Eyed Seeing: “To see from one eye with the strengths of Indigenous people’s ways of knowing, and to see from the other eye with the strengths of Western ways of knowing and to use both of these eyes together.” 

  • Teacher asks students what they think this means and how it applies to the world and to solving the world’s problems.